France and ILS approaches

People seem surprised by the fact that ILS in France are decommissioned at a rapid pace.
Almost ten years ago, in 2007, the ICAO passed  resolution 36-23
The Assembly Resolves that:(…)
a) States complete a PBN implementation plan by 2009 to achieve: (..)
2)implementation of approach procedures with vertical guidance (APV) (Baro VNAV and/or augmented GNSS) for all instrument runway ends, either as the primary approach or as a back-up for precision approaches by 2016
In 2010 or 2011 (I could not find the actual date) the DGAC issued a document in French and English
You could read in that document that the objectives targeted by the DGAC are the publication, by the end of 2016, of an RNAV (GNSS) approach over all controlled IFR aerodrome runway ends, including a certain number with vertical guidance (APV SBAS or APV Baro-VNA)
So the plan was in line with ICAO recommendations. But you had to read further on: Navaids Rationalisation
The gradual deployment of RNAV (GNSS) procedures will allow the appropriateness of maintaining certain navigation means used for NDB, VOR or ILS Cat I approaches to be evaluated. Thus, when an RNAV (GNSS) procedure is published at an aerodrome where a conventional approach procedure based on a NDB or VOR beacon exists, an analysis will be conducted to measure the advantages of maintaining that beacon and the related approach procedure. Similarly, some ILS Cat I procedures may be replaced by an APV procedure. Such analyses will be conducted on a case by case basis. The following elements must be taken into account: the environment (obstacles); equipment of users flying to and from the aerodrome; economic viability (traffic justifying the installation being maintained); existence of a Delegation or a Public Service Obligation; existence of a special activity (school); significance within a national operating network, especially public transport.
If you translate that in plain English, it meant most ILS will be decommissioned unless political pressure is strong enough. So you had some time to get prepared.
The official list of decommissioned ILS was published in March 2015. The most recent list of available GNSS procedure is here. 2015 and 2016 charts are provided so that you can see how fast it goes.
What puzzles me is that countries such as Belgium had their first GNSS approach only last month, and that most flight schools in Europe keep on teaching NDB approaches to IR student, and on not teaching GNSS approaches, just as if the GPS would not exist.

Landing out of hours VFR or IFR (1)

In Belgium the Commandant d’aérodrome (You don’t call him Commandant nor Mon Commandant, although it would be fun to do so) or one of his deputies must open and close  the airfield, and stay there in between (Circulaire 3 novembre 2009 6.1.9).
It has nothing to do with ATC. Even if there is no ATC, there must be someone in charge on the ground. If you want to land out of official hours, you must arrange that with the operator of the airfield, to make sure that a deputy commandant will be there on your arrival.
In France it’s just not mandatory for anyone to be on the ground when you land. So as a rule it’s allowed to land any time, as there is no formal requirement for an aerodrome to be open. There are exceptions though, you would find them in the VAC, IAC, or in the Notams. The main exception is security: if the airport is locked, even if you land you can’t get out.
At night the airfield must be approved for night usage. Many airfields restrict the usage at night to locals, medical flights, etc. It is sometimes possible to get a special permission. Sometimes the night restriction is only when there is no ATC, in that case you can usually at an extra fee request extended ATC hours.
Usually there is a PCL.
Using lights is almost always billed as an extra fee. Unfortunately dishonest pilots often use the PCL without paying, so the operators tend to switch the PCL off unless you call in advance and give satisfactory credentials. cf Notams/VAC/IAC.
As always, beware of permanent Notams, so always check the Notams, even months before flying.
Communications with air traffic services units can be held in French or English language unless the mention « FR only » is specified
on the relevant aeronautical charts* in which case communications shall be held in French language
*standard instrument departure charts, standard instrument arrival charts, instrument approach charts, visual approach charts, ATC
surveillance minimum altitude charts, aerodrome/heliport charts, regional charts, en route charts, world aeronautical
charts 1:1 000 000, aeronautical charts 1:500 000.

Out of ATC hours, see the relevant IAC/VAC/Notam to check whether English is allowed. Usually (in fact I think it’s a rule), when there is a published IFR approach, French is mandatory for blind calls.

Even if radio is not mandatory, you must make blind calls if you have a radio. Radio is always mandatory under IFR in France, and under IFR you must always be in contact with ATC, unless for the final part of the approach when you make blind calls at a no ATC airfields.

So how about flying an IFR approach and land without ATC?
(to be continued)